Heart failure—with approximately 50% mortality at 5 years—affects more than 6 million Americans. Over the past decades, there have been several advances in heart failure treatment, including beta blockers, vasodilators, and aldosterone inhibitors, all of which have improved survival. More recently, sacubitril/valsartan and ivabradine have contributed to improved outcomes. Currently, evidence is growing that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors can reduce the risk for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this talk, the faculty will discuss the cause of heart failure and its pathophysiology and provide further explanation of these therapies.
- List the causes of heart failure
- Describe the pathophysiology of heart failure
- Apply approaches to manage heart failure